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= If the recurrence is non-homogeneous, a particular solution can be found by the method of undetermined coefficients and the solution is the sum of the solution of the homogeneous and the particular solutions.

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, → {\displaystyle y_{t}} n n + An example of a recurrence relation is the logistic map: with a given constant r; given the initial term x0 each subsequent term is determined by this relation. , λ 1 )

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Product Rule: (d/dx) (fg) = fg’ + gf’. +

x ] t . y

N This is the most general solution; the two constants C and D can be chosen based on two given initial conditions a0 and a1 to produce a specific solution. }, Given an ordered sequence y {\displaystyle {\tbinom {n}{k}}} , not necessary the initial ones, This description is really no different from general method above, however it is more succinct. In the first-order matrix difference equation. y y The worst possible scenario is when the required element is the last, so the number of comparisons is

For any These and other difference equations are particularly suited to modeling univoltine populations.

. n Substituting this guess (ansatz) in the recurrence relation, we find that. Special cases of these lead to recurrence relations for the orthogonal polynomials, and many special functions.

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{\displaystyle \underbrace {y_{a},y_{b},\ldots } _{\text{n}}} The equation in the above example was homogeneous, in that there was no constant term. They can be computed by the recurrence relation, with the base cases ]

→ When solving an ordinary differential equation numerically, one typically encounters a recurrence relation. The logistic map is used either directly to model population growth, or as a starting point for more detailed models of population dynamics. can be taken to be any values but then the recurrence determines the sequence uniquely. }

→ x ,

i b λ

), Thus, a difference equation can be defined as an equation that involves + differential equations in the form y′ +p(t)y = yn y ′ + p ( t) y = y n. This section will also introduce the idea of using a substitution to help us solve differential equations. λ It is not to be confused with, Relationship to difference equations narrowly defined, Solving homogeneous linear recurrence relations with constant coefficients, Solving non-homogeneous linear recurrence relations with constant coefficients, Solving first-order non-homogeneous recurrence relations with variable coefficients, Solving general homogeneous linear recurrence relations, Solving first-order rational difference equations, Stability of linear higher-order recurrences, Stability of linear first-order matrix recurrences, Stability of nonlinear first-order recurrences. are constant coefficients and p(n) is the inhomogeneity, then if p(n) is a polynomial with degree r, then this non-homogeneous recurrence can be reduced to a homogeneous recurrence by applying the method of symbolic differencing r times. Moreover, for the general first-order non-homogeneous linear recurrence relation with variable coefficients: there is also a nice method to solve it:. a For example, the Nicholson–Bailey model for a host-parasite interaction is given by. 1

Given a homogeneous linear recurrence relation with constant coefficients of order d, let p(t) be the characteristic polynomial (also "auxiliary polynomial"). →

, n The model would then be solved for current values of key variables (interest rate, real GDP, etc.)